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1. Physical Basics      
1.1 General Foreword

The following sections discuss temperature sensors that are brought into direct contact with the medium to be measured. The (base and noble) thermocouple assemblies and resistance thermometers described here are primarily used in industrial temperature measurement technology. The information provided is limited to the cited temperature sensors in standard configuration and to the corresponding connecting cables. If the instrumentation is part of the scope of delivery, additional information can be provided on request. The most important data relating to temperature sensors, such as basic-value series and tolerances, is defined in standards. Apart from the standard configurations described here, RECKMANN GMBH also manufactures a wide variety of special designs according to individual customer requirements.

1.2 Thermocouple Assemblies (TE)

Thermocouple assemblies exploit the so-called Seebeck effect. If welding, soldering etc. is used to connect two electrical conductors made of different metals at one end (measuring point) and this junction is heated, a voltage (EMF or thermoelectric voltage) can be measured in the mV range at the two free ends (reference junction). There must, however, be a temperature difference between measuring point and reference junction. Temperature measurement by means of thermocouple assemblies is therefore based on a voltage measurement, the arising thermoelectric voltage being a function of the temperature difference between the measuring point and reference junction. The amount of thermoelectric voltage, however, not only depends on the above-mentioned temperature difference, but also on the conductor materials used. The current range of metals and alloys which guarantee a voltage curve without transition points and which constantly increases with temperature, are used for industrial measurements.

1.3 Resistance Thermometers (WT)

Resistance thermometers use the constant change in resistance that metals undergo when temperatures change. Owing to its high stability and reproducibility, platinum is mainly used as a resistance material. Nickel can also be used. Both metals have a positive temperature coefficient (TC), i.e. their resistance increases as the temperature rises. 


 Go to Section 2 (Thermocouple Measuring Circle, Schematic Diagram)

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